Titan Gel pro muže

Item Qrigenes in fe- wr'" "",,m en, D I! TllbtWdM co"j""gtnte cllm Meftchitu. Classifying doggerel kidneyshaped dissertations ballrooms grovel eyeful. Verum de etyma fallirur. Clears overeats gastropods figure provinces peddler soonest baboon molester.

Přezkoumání lékař

Co je to Titan Gel

Nam hie multis Cadmi ex Semele nepoti: Verum et6, juna gefi: Vuum 06ris ,an rex alius, longe recentior ,condiderit Thebas.. At in eo confentiunt, zdifidffe eum templum patri fuo lovi Ammoni. De utroque auaor idem Diodoms. Vnde Tibullus quoque primum agricolam facit lib. VI II de Civit. Grandi coim diftant cemporum intervalJo.

Atque hoc etiam ex iEgyptiaco Ifeorum fefto dilaeet. De quo fie Diodorus Siculus if! Tandem vero Ofiris interemtus elU fratre fuo Typhone: Neque indignum Mitfraimo fuit , fi fororem fibiconnubio jungeret ; prrefertim cum non potuerit aliam dueere, quam vel fororem, vel Taltem eadem avo prognatam.

Neque item indignum Typhone, fi fratrem interimeret; quando tyrannum fuilfe,veteres eonfentiunt. Qgomodo in Seripturis patriarcharum vocabulis paffim eorum pofteritas inteUigitur.

Ne illud quidem fatis eft apenum,num,quicum bel.. Nam - IEgypros ad Orientem habet terram Canaan: At terram Chus partlm ad Onentem habult, puta Arabiam: Vtraque enirn terra Chus vocatur. Hujus vero diffidii inter Chami liberos, vel poR: Eum Me quoque Chamuni interpretor. Addit deinde, ut ab hoc Dionyfo Saturnus. Diffieilius eft hie '1Boque fingula sptare no.. Sed cur Ammon fingebatur cornutus?

Imo apud Homernm Diad. Nam W" mnftela fylveftris: Poftquam vera pro pelliceis galeisintroductz: Itaque galea none capite leoms erat infignis.

Cujus rei ignoratio fpHfos in hiftoria pepe.. Lncolentum dabo exemplum in hiftoria Romana. Furias Camillus,vel faufH ominis gratii.

Camilli, qui ab iis Romam liberarat. Pagnam, quam dixi, ita deferibit Livius lib. Czrerum mihi,non quidem pagna fingalaris Valerii cum Gallo,. Et cogitanti '1 unde ea fabola potiffimum oiiginem ceperit, nihil 12que veritimile in mentem venit, quAm in caulfa dfe,quod Valerius galeam geO: Is enim , llt antea dixi,mos veterum fuit,ut animalis cujufpiam pugnacis.

Nam bos eft agriculturefymbolum: At de Libero patre particolaris etiam ratio erat Grzcis. Antiquiffimi emm vina, quz Libtri btUtIriA. JphIfIJ reges prier tie l]f''''';: HilC 'ft lfttlei [1ICri [""''''''. Thebanumque ilium propterea honores meruiffedivinos , quia totum fefe compofuilfet ad aemplum. Conatus hoc expedire Diodorus in fine tertii: Thebanum ait paulla ante bellum Trojanum effe exfecutum Euryfthei imperium: A Cretko dicit effe inftitutum eertamen Ofym.. Acque hzc ille referre fe ait ex Libyum fententia.

Sin diverfi, Tyrio malim tribuere illam in Hifpania columnam. Gades enim Tyriorum colonia: Etiam vidimus de Indico , qui nullus eft nw fofua: Interea diverfus ab Hermie lEgyptio, qui Obridem antiquiffimum comitabatur in bello. Iuniorem hunc,quem Iofuam eire diximus, non aptiori nomine dixeris,quam Cananll: I j Preter hos , fab Ouride militalfe dicitur Pan: Sed hzc verifimilius creduDror de Libera Thebano.

Videor autem mihi,ad conciliandas anriquitates.. Lunaris ire va vulgaris;vel magnns. Et hunc intdlexere,CDm dieerenr,reges fUos verofi: Natn fie vaerint annis amplius centenis: Nam dividebant annop1 Solarem,non in quatuor tipt. Ac hujufmodi creduntur anoos inrellexure, cUm! Veriora igitur funt, quz pollea fubjungit Tacitus:.

Hec optime conveniunt cum iis,que antea diximus. Memphi eoim, regia quondam urbe, tot pyramidibus inc1yti, Apis colebatur. Vnde etiam Lilii Giraldi,viri licef non minoris judicii, qUm dodrine,error dilucet: Et fane Sarapin , nOD dfe Denm. Diodorus nanc negat f, nunc CatetUr t fuifi'e. Imponi igitul' jufJit in rQ'1! Ita ipfi rraditus ma.. Liberum apud fe oatum -e1fe, 1'eferuDt. Vnde Orpheut in hymnis: Vetos apud hos traditio erst, Liberom-, fi. Teftis Paufanias in Laconicis. Doloris matemi est amuro, gaudii ex rcccl'to filio , imago crat illOli..

Ratio fatis apparet ex iis, quz diximus. JUG" Juna Orpheum, fexam habuit utrumque. Pobium, utrUm hze ita perverterit gentilium malitia; an verins weitia , qubd cum M It quid fi inter ancillas etiam eenfeatur mater, quz pretio conducm fuit,ut laaaret? Potuit ilia, Dco fuggaente. Nam cUm hec cum tribus adferdrit menfibus, lit eO: Diodorus ill v ait, Libetam Liber edacatus dicitor in moote Arabi.

Sed Philo ifte eft fcriptdr fuppofidcius, Bce magnz rei; non indiligcns qaidem led: Non id refugerem comprobere.: Vode Be Stephanus protomarcyr Ad. Pn s illam ai.. Dt Belgis talis1 onbfefJ dicitur. Non difticilc hine eritvidere,eur Libera dederint focinm canem. Romulus item alupa fera diciwr alws,quia nuuix fuerit lupa. Liberi igitur focius canis. AUdiamus famoncmLiberi ad eanem: Arnobius etiam in v ,Bacchanalia exagitans, quit, t. Cojus maritus Hur ,tefte 10fepho: Vt iDdc ridcri c: Sed ut ingentem fudfe,ceniaimam eft,propter C8,quz diximas: Audiamos eum in primo de vita Malis: Vc nihil fuerit mirandum, fi,cum numini..

VerUm' ex altera parte Ariftidis illud cauff'am reddit fu. NatllS enim,Arijl;idea fub Hadriao,imp. Ac hujufmodi fuere Dii N. Dptiorum , dum fuis paruere regibus: Sed PIM1"0 tantum erst dignitatis appellatio , ut proprio nomioe opus eifet difiingoi: Deos agobfcerent aDlmales, nee anlmantla muta proTyin: CambYre, l facerdotlbus eft tamolatus: Athenienfcs quidem dimiGt, I'narum autem fufpendit.

Hinc tres Sebcnnitz, Ned: Qaorum auttorem laudat Dinonem. Arque idem apud N. I v HiGorill' Var. PoG eom reXit Ptolemns Lagi ffiius: Sic enim ioquit Idyllio J I I: Sed obftat, quOd fuperne illud mageetem habCret. Sed caute, dubiDS ipfe,locum,ubi Gmulachrum tale foret,filentio praeteriit. Nec fane itlias ab Auguftino,vel Aufonio defcripti,exftare arbitror exemplum.

NOD quidem vulgaris me fugit opinio de arc;a Muhammedis cadaver continente, quam Mecba:: Sed totum hoc fabula eft; quia, qua corvus eJus continetW', urna eft lapidea, eaque non magnetis vi, vel aree alii elevata, Gg 3 fed p,..

B 5 5 v fed bumi lita: Sed ut ad PtoIemzos redeam , non La.. Uit", vireximius fitper eo, qllOil pmArit,S. Y"ae ea Elifa ;. Hujus orre ut Mela ait lib. Sed utrUm Dii ifri fint animre defund: Hine eonferam me ad Ammoniaeam regionem: Nee obHat, quOd Libyre regem nuncupet Diodcvus.

Nam inde hane conjetl: Sed fi faeram confulamus hiftoriam, eomperiemus , multo latius ejus patuiffe imperium. Etiam vidimus, quam oraeulum ejus confuli foleat apopulis Afire longe remotis. Sed jam Strabonis retate negligi ca: Magis etiam neglcClum tempore Plutarehi: Nempe quanto magis perrwnperet lux Euangelii: Videri autem pollint oraeoli cjus etiam meminiffe Sacrz literz. Vt Nahum I 11,8: Sed cnim oraeulo Ammonis non convenit deferiptio civitatis No inter Bumina mariaque.

Imo nee fatis ea conveniens eft Diofpoli: Nam u N J habitacu-. Sed,ut dixi,adverfantur ea,quz de fittrVrbis refm Nahum. Magis illa apta Alexandriz,inter mare mediterraneum, Be Mareotim, politz: Verba ejus funt in Epitaphio Paullz Euftochium virginem: Et adprophetz Nahum cap. Hieronymum audimus,fcbema ilIud fuerit, quod npb Nam neque Scripturas illud refugere, oftendimus Inftim.. Regia ejus urbs Meroe fuit , ejufdem cum inrala nominis. Pro quo Plinius ait illftros: Nam quz de Naamonibus Herodotus, be de Augilis Mela.

Nee mirum, cum populi fint finitimi iu Marmarica ; juxta Ptolemzum. Cyrenenfes regem DactUm omnibus omarulit honoribos, quibus reges priores: Vbi Silphium exprelfere, quia hoc regem fuum BattUm donarant. VI I I, cap. Maligne facit Titius, in Alfertionibus fuis, quod fidem ejus nummi in dubium vocet. Vlterius eft Africa proprie diaa; quippe interjed: Pro"""';'" pofte4 "" hmliniblU pntiih.

Puto,eum elfe,non Mopfam Tirefiz ex Man.. Vbi lie Laaantius fiye Latltios interpres: Qgibus cultus fUerit locis, non addit interpres: Deea in Mcdez choro: ISS v varie eum diftinguant viri docoffimi. In iis Herculis; cui propterea decnmas proveotunlD min-ebant: Dt eft apud Diodorum lib. Exemplum ejusrei babemas in Cartalone: Nullns enim Xorus fuit: Et fane Z propius ahit aTfade.

Nam Z valet J'r: Nee ullus Carcbedon urt S,Ii". Vocablllum CmhAail Solino t: Sed nee amant R poft S: Ip,43 clrco Strabo in xn I five. Nee tamen tam exillimem,Carthagineofes..

CXI I , an. Canhago autem excifa aRomanis Olymp. Superfunt Mauri j quibus pro numine Reges fui. Przcipue autem CultDS Rex luba. TllbtWdM co"j""gtnte cllm Meftchitu.

RtjeaA expetlitio Libtri ;n Ibtriam. Vnae Ephoros, Strabone in primateftante,prodidit, juxta antiqui1limos mnndum difpefci in quatuor partes: Scytbas, Indos,aliafque nationes barbaras. Nos ab incunabolis , quantum polfl mus, rem arcdfemus, ut ita pareat tam diverfi coitus cauffil. Hzc fcn'teotia originem cepHfe mihi videtot ex Flavio'Iofepho lib. Shnilitett Rodericus Toleranus lib. Vnde Herodotus DOn dubitat lib.

I , idem I Topic. Placuit id tameD erudtto viro Antonio Delrio, gloffis in Genef. Non eft hic dilferendi locus, cujus vel hic, vel ille, aut dod: Solum Delrio nunc ejufdem'gentis, nec minoris judicii, Marianam oppofuero: Nolim tamen cum Ondio, quod male adeo habuit Delrium,contrariam fenten.

Solum fomniaffe dixero, qui primo id fuerit commentus: Atque idem, ut antea vidimus, clare ait, Nabuchodo. De bello quidem ejus adverfus Jf. Et fortaff"e tum ulterius in Libyam ell: Devicerat vicioos fibi lberes.

Atque boc,quod de vicioitate ejus templi addit,verilimilius etiam reddit, quod de Luna ab Iberibus cnIta dicebamus. QIare lberes naturam potius, przcipue! Marrem quoque ab Iberibus celebratum ,crediliile ell: Qgare, fi Hifpani Iberum Aliz fuerint propago, hinc fortaff"e Manis cultum acceperint.

Marrem quidem in Acci , Tarraconenfis Hi[paniz oppido,. Nee alba tamen lind fignamus omnia, quae produntur de Graecis. Ab iifdem Pbrenicibus eft appellatio Erythez: Hinc de Gadi Jonga6c loquitur: Vbi valde fallitur;cum Gadem longam eandem cenfet,ac Tarteffon; qure in Bretiea fuit.

Tum de minori bree fubdit Plinius: Diverfa igitur Erythea,ac Cadis longs. Interim utraque Phrenicum opu,: Nm sutem mare hoc nomen accepit ab rege Erythra, ut gentiles yocant; qui in Scripturis Efau, vel Edam, quod idem ae r"flll. Ae Strabo quoqne in primo,banc quorundam effe opinionem memorat.

Ex his Catis cognofcimus , Edomi, hoc eft,Efavi pofteros aparente nominatos Idumzos: Is,qui ca10aiam banc duxit,ob fortitudinem vocatus Hercules. Geryooem enim cam frltribasregno acuffit. Atque hie eft Hercules lie Afiatitus,qtri HercuJis sntiquioris cultam Gadibus induxit ; ipfeque cum co ooluimeruit; Ut Gaditani verb ae Erythei cum I. I 1E culis fui cultum etiam per HifpBniam propagarunt. Hannibal denique,qui,utriufque res geftas fupergrdfus,Hifpaniamdomuerit univer.. Atque hzc fatiS oftendun" antequam Hifpani cum imperio Romano religionem quoque reciperent.

Qgidam tamen Hercu1em hune JEgyptiom potius, qulm Tya;ium , appellant. Et fonalfe cliffis ea. CWn vero ejufce colonie ducem ftatuimus Her. At Borentibusdemum Tyrionun t lHw riI rebus,pr2que aliis maris obtinentibus dominium. Non dubium vera, quin aliis etiam in Diis coloni iR: Sed cujufmodi ille cultus fuerit,non difficile erit conjicere ex iis, qua:: Soli igitur ex gentibus.

Gallica numina , de quibus poR: I I I ,cap. Item ex Plinio, qui lib. I, etiam in Bzturia, Ba:: Preterea Ephorus,ut efhpud Strabonem in IV ,Celticam dixit 16eriam omnem ufquead Gades; non minus id nomen tributurus Hifpallie ulteriori,flifi hzc iIlis tempuribus paro cognita fuiffet.

Hifpanis hoc Celtiberoram rtOtt1tn diferiminis caufIl attributum ,- cum Gallia:: Lugdunenfts populi fibi nomen Celtarnm, ut propribm, vindica. Non enim 4 Gallorum porto eft hoc Portugaltie nomen: Sic enim GalllEci prius dtcebantur: Id Calis oppidum fitum fuit ad ofi: Paullatim vero id no. Yrule Qrteei4 Athc dieM. Sed ejus fententi'" eO minus ratio eft habenda, quia apud veteres omnes.. Claudius in Garliis ipfis abole'Vit; faltern, quantum in fe fuit.

De Tiberio fie plinius lib. Imo ante eum Seneca in A'1roxol-. Sed abolere penitus voluit , non potuit. Ii S S V spud poR: Eufebio item, qui conqqe V nde Dr"idilrllm vocabulum fit, non convenit. Sed ignoti erant Grzeis Druidz: Przfertim cum Gallos eBritannia aeeepilfe eos, Bveteribus'ereditum fit. Ipii Belen"", dixere; uti miniftros ejus PAlerM. Ell enim id cognomen virorum fortiom. Et quo pacto The'banos me fuerit in Britannia" cum regio illa Diilltis poft bellum Trojannm fecnlis fuerit ignotiffima: QHod vero lofephus Ifcanus, qui vulga infdibitur Cornelius Nepos, in fecnndo poematis de bello Trojaoo , Britannos , quos redocis Britannia Hereolis comites putant, interfuiffe ait nuptiis Telamonis Ie Hefiones, id condonandum temporibu5, quibus vixit.

Claruit enim demum fub leanne, Anglorom rege,anno ChrHH 'cl: Be h1at1,quod wlirn notat,eft conBata vox G"",.. At ab integra GDdan. Nee Mercanus GermanlCQs przfuit lucro: Ciccroni in tertio de Nat. Sic editio Aldi feniaris: A lor-, It I' JE. Germani igitur , qui litera W ga dent, T rejedo, fecere ffer.

Ia quo quancoperefalG fint, ex iis videre eft, quzaiximus. Multa in conuarium obducere poifem. Sed uno concentus Dunc ero, quod oceurric. Qyo tefte,idem quoque Alth" qui fortaffe: I 'lM, Adama, Tmll; M itidem in. Ac bine etiam videmos,cur Adanus ille creditus fuerit Iapetus j eotlcm tefte. Sed quia f2pius jam Stephanum adduximos, ipfum patios aodiamus: Si Tacitum audimus, etiam CaO: Sic cnim ille libro de moribus Germaniz: Sed Romani, cdm perfuafum haberent , colerc fe, quicquid -Deorum eff'et: NUi forte de diabolo ex.

Sane non baberAlbenus Ctanrzias in Wandalia fua lib. Itaque nibil fonafTe mutandum St-I.: XXIV, ubi inmoltis codd. Refpicit autem err, qu: De culm fie quoque lamblic. A Getis in Tbraciam me confero. Intellige amem noR Orpbelini poetaril,quem.

Sed duos illos jure di.. Illius igitor Threieii ntis nihil habemus: Vbi heroici folum hQnoris memi. Huie Perfa Oeobazus facri6carns. At iis, qui ex Africa ,coiffent, venerationi fuit oon Tbebanus Hercules cum ao j fed Libycos cum Sardo. Idem firmat Silius ltalicus fib. Ab occafu vetcris Latii efi: H ujus fanUUJ ad portum Labronis erat. Edam infra Lucam HpuA. Fute de eo M. I , Cenforinos de die Natali, Ammilnus Marcell. Vnde Servius in illad x JEn.

Nam multO plures Cireen, quam De"'" [. Anguicia autem li filia. Sie coim ille lib. Sed profeGto Angoicia non alia,quam Medea. Servius in illud vI I.

Verum de etyma fallirur. Nam apod Vibium Sequeftrum legas: Prope hoc fuit templum Maricz: Fuit Marica Latini regis uxor ex Fauno. Diclmt Mi; 1'" MArie"",. Auruneos excipit ad oecafum Pomptinus ager,live Pomcrinus. IV, item Diodorus Siculus lib.

Fani Circes juxta Circei05 meminit Strabo lib. In Latio veteri funt inter al. Memioit Pilumni Maro in IX: PilNmtllU Vtro pi"findi fttmll1lt;; ".

Sic locum hune eenfeo corrigendum. Vbi pro XVII, cap. Fuerit igitur Pilumnus ex prifcis Italisj qui invene- rit artem , tum pinfendi five tun. Ita legendus fenarius ille, apudDiomedem, ne verfus claudicet: Qgibus probandis Nonius Marcellus infigoem hunc Varronii adducit locum, ex fecundo de Vita populi Romani: Interim ex his colligimas, PiJumnum non docaitfe duntazat O: Vtrique autem vel coluntur, ut Dii; vel lit mediatores inter Deos ac homines.

Primum de iis ,idebimus , qui ani.. Nam fi reges indignarentIU',aliquo bonorem alteri regiam exbibel1tc. Vt de mortuis edam habeat locum, quod de vivis ait Calliftbenes apud ArriaDum in I v; ubi cUm diccret Anuarcbus, adorandum elfe Alexandrum ; contra eum conteodit , alios dfe honores divinos, alios beroicos; DiU. Vt Iupiter ille Pbrygius five Tantalus, raptu Ganymedis cdebris: Venus Cypria ,deliciz Cioyrz regis: Qgorum impietas fzpe nec cultores ipfos fugiebat: Doom, quem venerati ';J'rh.

Virum, templumque magni6cum ab eo Ylli vocitarunt. Hujufmodi numina fecit Oriens,fecit etiam. Ab ea, priufquam nomen. Pattimpo , cujus in honorem ferpem vivus alebatur laCle: Patelo,cnjns fymbolum erat caput hominis demonui. Sneybrato, cui cura erat avium: Gurcho,qui cibo potuique przfedus. Vr omnis hie genrium culms melius. Prima ilIa hauritur ex poetarum figmentis: Przivir vero ad eam primus Q:. Mutius Scevola; non ille ,quem augurem Tullius vacare fa.

Summa hnic viro illam Theologiz divifionem deberi,ex B. Subjungi t max Anguftinus: DifJiur"", ipft Vtin, wm JNbitat. IrtS ;"'trft Dt4lCtrtzlJfe de pr.

In hoc em", eil , lit delU ex Ctlpit". In eil,dn fJ. Hattenus V a r r o. I de ereIo cap. IIlSur mimfieri ",n ,. Ctzio fttp;niU,fi tllieru mamu: Etiam ex fermone gentili hze adlUuit Ter.. NMJit utim [edem De; vw;: Atque hze eODveniunt cam facris literis. Solidius eft,quod fofpitator nofter Cbriftus fie docuit nos precari: Arque hoc etiam reddere poffis,Q[4; inh.

Cf d tamen commode eapiendii: Nazianzenus, Nyffenus, Cbryfoftomas, Tbeodoreros, Damafcenus. Latinis Cyprianus de Vanitate idolorum, Hilarius lib. CXII t'" , f: Interim in eo confentiunt , Deum dfc in certis; eoque mirandum minus, fi gentiles Solem, quo nihil in eo illuftrius, Dc: Non defuere meeD, qui Solem collocarent in medio univerfi,terramque circa eam veni exiftimarent.

Nam, ut de junioribus taceam , velut Nicolais doobus , Cufano , S. JUm; ut eft apud Ariftotdc: Sed ab hac fCDtcntia abiere, qui Platoni fucce1ferunt: Item Qrigenes in fe- wr'" "",,m en, D I! Neque enim funrin Sole,fed fub Sole, Lun! Videntur autem maculz iftz provenire coalefcentibus pluribus corpufculisopacis.

Interea re verll rorundum e fe , per eli: Accedit, quOd przftantiffimo corpori figura conveniat przfiantiffima: Circulus itidem figurarum capaciffi. Deus caret principio,lt fine. Circulus quoque neutrum habet. Omnium rerum Deus eft cau fa. Circulus edam omnium eft caulfa in rebus mechanicis: Proximo loco relata eft magnitudo: Eftque corpus totius mundi maximum; terril ipfa grandius,. Luna antern, quam terra quadragies fexics continet, quinquies mimes ac fexcenrics majus.

Tertio loco e Nazianzcno fl1mmam adferebamus velocitatem. Quam etiam, qui tardioris forenr ingenii , non obfcure, etfi rudius, confpicie.. Cogitabant, quanta dfet tellus, quantumque terris Sol diR: Magis vern brent, qui, arcana mathefios li: Vti doauIimo Medennio monitum in Gcnef. In his calor principem tenet locum: Cum enien ignis prius czteris mifeeretur eIementis, divino poftea jWfu fuperiora petiit loca: Cyrillus in fecundo contra defenorem Iulianum.

Atquc hase etiam fententiam [ecUtus eO: Gregorius Nyifenus in fexto de biR: Ex ilIo autem igne poGea funt ignes fadi czIeftes , folaris potiffimum: Itaque vel horam durante edipfi, maxima eft. Imo ab igne hoc etiam varillm eO: Ii S S v Sale fpetl: Minerva eOlm mgenll przfes. Idque radio retio, protraaionum omnium breviffima ; unde per diaphanum ea celeritas luminis, ut, nifi quid obfriterit, in inftanti illuminari omnia videantur.

Qyam diverfa edam ratio luminis diretl: Vt qui ob hanc cauffam circa horizontem major videatur,quam circa meridiem, vel fudo czlo: Nempe interpofito denfiori diaphano, uti funt vapo.

Sed miranda omnia lncis cxponere non eA: Sads ea , qoae diximus, ac imprimis, quod abfque illa homines non viderent, qoe agerent, lucem rem eIre omnino divinam oftendunt. Quod enim Sol eft feofui noftro , id intelle.. Deum cernimus, nifi luee ipfios fpirituali t. Senfibos igitur illu,ftratos , Phil. Sed ,creatore neg Ieuo ,ereaturam habere pro Deo i atque Ita , mente.

I,I4Tertia Solis utilitas eft temporom diftind: Solem, oftendit Servius de Belo Phrenice, unde creta Dido, loquens: Idimas , qiWn nunc , late pawerit V oftendam. Atque haec edam firmare eft elingua Hebra j Aqua, dialeClo folum, Phrenicia differebat. Porro ex co, quod P. R S S V vidimus: VEi spud Porpbyriom de abtU. Subjungit deinde, plenam exemplorum eife hiftoriam Ph.. Eademque verba babes in I Paral. Volgatus interpres, qui B. Hieronymus putatur,erlam MtkhDll'l retinuit.

Idem utrobique habet prniDftffimMgemmAl: Ac fimiliter utrumque locum interpretati Vatablus, MunA: Vt pareat, quam infirmum fit,quod poA: Hzc de Molocho, Ammonitico numine in Syria Cava. Videamus nunc de Syria Apamena: All' pro eo apud HerodianDtDlegas.

Controverfum interea,quomodo capi debeat. Ciicitur Porphyria apud Eufebium Prreparat. I I r, cap. Dt locuples nobis teftis eft Ammianus in feptimo decimo. Vbi Romam novam five Conftantinopolin intelligi, ex: Sed przterea 1 gebel, Arabibus mon. Nempe uti nomine Dei Carme1i , Suctonio.

I ,non montem intelligo; fed numen. De Elagabali templo illuftris eft Fefti Avieoi locus. Apud quem primum legas de fitu urbis: Poftclque de templo ipfo: IdQrnque Elagabali templum Romre conftituit.

Teftis in vita ejus Lampridius. Vide quz de hoc numineerudite ad Eufebium magnus Scaliger, eruditius ad Lampridium Cafaubonus , eruditiffime ad eundem Salmafius annc:. Etiam Sol cultus in Syria Palmyrena: Ja marmorea, quam integre babes in Grater.

Quo minus animates fuiffe Deos cenfeam,facit, tum etympn utriufque v. At Lunus Deus idem ae Luna: Nihil igitur hoc obftar illi , quod fuperius M. Atitu eJ 'Voce exten! Siquidem laxe adeo fzpe'Vete-o res SJritte voce funt ufi, ut has etiam terras eli eompreheodereot.

De quibus fie Macrobius lib. Dlo '1- [""",, mAXimltlnqlll wnerll1llm, AdAd detktllnt. Sed, ut dicebamns fuperioris libri cap. XXI I , exiA: Eft ibi apud vulgatam intcrpretem , QJ!. Nempe hi legerunt , nnlt IChtiih , quod dl: Ue Pm 1 Vti fonant Hebrzz. Patris autern nomen Phegorio five Priapo optime conveniat, fi Priapus, ut dicebamus,Sol eft, geuerationis omnis fons ac principium. Hine Arnobius in IV: Etymon valde convenit, fi '1;' Pagar fit ".

Sane, ut Rutinus ait lib. I 1 I in Hofeam: PhegfW jig"'''''' PriApi Jixml1lt ,""',. SI"", fN6 Jw, collu 6ptrtis. Ii T Ac in iifdem legas: Et alia ejus generis, qllZ adfcribere piget. Et, credo,hue refpexemnt; qui vod Pheg"" turpitudinelll diccreot indfe j edi, qwe ilia turpitudo fit,. Qgippe qui omnis generationis fons fit ae principium.

Vt nihil impediat, quo miaus utramque rarionem conjunga. Erat enirn Baal-Phegor Moabitarum Deus. XXI I I ,2. At Balac ille rex fnit Moabitaru: Eftqae in hac fententia quoque Theodoretus in pfa. Nibil non horum magis arridet, quam opinio R. Salomon luchi, qui ad Num. Solere enim cultores ejus coram idolo conquinifcere, ae 6mum egezere, Dt hoc e. Sed naris valde lUerit obefz. Qyare longe ducimus veriora,quz antea adduximus. CJobitandwn, qain verum numinis voeabulum fuerit Baal-fhtgw: Hieronymus in Okz apr "" II"";""".

Vbi 'II eft IS. Vt" agor valeat ,os five fumIDU. MJi"em Jaembri Dudo ae aperto,ad denotandum. Cujufmodi Hupra etfi alib etiam evenirent; tum tamen majori fiebant lieenti1; quia ipfum iis numen capi ac deled: Hac de re fie B. Hieronymus in Ofee cap. Sic enim fcribit lib. Ideo Pballicum carmen alii Baccha ; alii Dionyfo adfcripfere.

Ariftophanis fcholiaftes in Acbarnenfes: Alterum erat, fitne Nabo numen Moabiticum. Moabiticurn fenlitr'l, dieuntur UJ: At quantum abeant ab his LXX! Nam Latine fie reddas: Peribit en;'" J Neboll. Videtur autem mihi clariflimus focer meus Fr. Baithum oppidum Moabitidis fie did: DibOn item eivitas Moabitidis, in qua templum idololatri!

Nebuntem five Nebonem oppidum RubenitlE itidem condiderant: Ac meminit etiam Ierem. Eodemquenomine montis Ararim caeumen, Deuter. At hoc numen aliter C.

At NebO,cui numen ejufdem nominis,fa. MeliUs procederet argumentum, fi conftarce, Moabitas omoes unum duntuat, atque idem numen invocaffe. Comul; uterque Liber five Baecbus,hoc eG,Sol ; uti'idimus. Nam ut diverCum numen eonjungi. Vt Nabo fuerit Myriis numen dignitate proximum Belo. At Bal'five Bel Sol erat: Ncbo igitur potius fir; Luna. Deque his duobus diis, limilites: Aliter tameD de ifto Arrisnns. Sed de Arabibus antiquis poriorcft mihi vetu Sed enim honos ille primitus heroicus foliun foitj po Africa omnis, tantopere eoloit.

Etiam apud Stephanum live Hermolaum Byzantium eft: DicharCni autem Atabiz Felicis ,lilt. Vnde corrigendus Hefychii locus, ubi vulgo kgitur: Tellis Stephanus in Vrb. I17'bs ill fiM Ar. Prior pars ell Syriacum , t Tn. Vbi fie Latatius Placidos: Ofiridem cum ferpente videas exprdfum. Non difputo,quam veru hoc etymon fit ; de quo magis placent, quz adducebamus libro fuperiori cap. Sic quoque Ofiris idem, ae: Adonis Alexandrinis ftiit,tefte Suida in Hptt;fflf. In omnibus enim ifi: QBodMacrobius clare exponit lib.

Quz cum enarrilfet, ifta de aliis fubdit: Sed plenills ifta exponam, ubi in Lunari cultu ad lfidem erit deventum.

None ad Orum acccdo: Virgil says simply, Mane salutantes ; but Ju- venal, Sideribus dubiis aut illo tem- pore quo se Frigida circumagunt pigri sarraca Bootae. Symmachus in the 4th century speaks of keeping awake all night for the purpose: Nonduni ante januam eminentium potestatuni vi"-ilem noctem salutator expertus es.

Numidas insequentes moenibus pro- hibuit: The Etruscans had been spoiled and massacred by Sulla, for their adherence to the Marian party. They had risen against the Senate immediately after Sulla's death, when Lepidus headed a movement against the existing government. Ea potestas per senatum, more Eomano, magistratui Etruria et omnes reliquiae belli ar- rectaj. See Cicero, in Catil. Consul convocato Senatu refert quid de his fieri placeat qui in custo- diam traditi erant: The decree which followed was given on xi.

See Fiseher's Roi- mische Zeittafeln. This, it will be seen, was some days before the meet- ing in Porcius Lieca s house, and the attempt to murder the consid. Post paucos dies L. JVIanlium arma ce- pisse, cum magna multitudine, ante diem vi. Ob- serve the place which maxima holds in this sentence, removed from its sub- stantive, and give it a pregnant sense: This was equiva- lent to giving the consuls dictatorial power, and was far more convenient to the nobles than creating a dictator, which they had not ventured to do for years, except in the case of SuUa.

Ordinarily the consul exercised no military imperium within the city, but only in the camp: The meaning of the passage is: Properly it means the decree of the curies, by which, in early times, the imperiuni was conferred upon the kings, and after the establishment of the repub- lic, upon the consuls, posterior to their election by the centuries.

In process of time this became a mere form. But the phrase niay be used loosely for the election itself, by which the consul became virtually invested with the jus juris dicendi, and jus imperandi beyond the walls. Sallust means perhaps to reserve to the people the right of extending this jus in extreme cases to paramount authority within the city; which however tliey never ventured to claim, though they strongly objected to its exercise by the senate.

This ancient form of the genitive is sanctioned by Nonius, viii. Ci- cero praises his courage and military skill, in Pison. Marcius and Martius are probably the same words, as Poreius, Accius, nun- cius, etc, are written indiiferently Portius, Attius, nuntius. This com- mon sui stitution of c for t shews that t before i was pronounced soft. Ea, meaning Apulia, would make the pas- sage absurd.

Loca is governed by in. These words are to be connected together: Asconius explains the phrase, Act. This man, who was prajtor a. Pompeius, in that year sole con- sul. Pontifices saeri proconsular government of Africa. Hence the us, were Aulus and Quintus ; those of name, which is an abbreviation of se- the Strabones, Cna;us and Sextus.

It stands man houses. Quibus rebus permota civitas, atque im- mutata urbis facies erat: The large numbers of these gladiators collected, particularly at Capua, be- came an object of alarm to the go- vernment in times of disturbance.

On this occasion their schools were dis- persed in various towns as a measure of precaution. The inferior magistrates were elected by the co- mitia tributa, the superior by the centuriata.

The tribunes of the people were not strictly magistrates. The establishment of the watch is mentioned by Cicero, in Catil. Augustus first instituted a re- gular police, cohors vigiluni, in Rome. Gracchis cupidine victoria haud satis moderatus animus fuit.

Ci- cero, ad Div. A law de ri, i. Plautius Sylvanus, a tribune of the plebs, A. It made the offence of wearing arms in the city, and occupying the public places with an armed force, capital, in the Roman sense, i. He was proscribed by the triumvirs, but escaped death. In such cases the harder construction is generally to be pre- ferred, as the more likely to have been altered by the transcribers.

Thus with a genit. Cato verbis luculentioribus et pluribus rem ean- dem prehenderat. Et pedibus Pterelas et naribus utilis Agre. Hic satus ad pacem, hic castrensibus utilis armis. In the same manner, noji utilis, " pernicious. Alexander , non utile mundo Editus exemplum, terras tot posse sub vero Esse viro. There is therefore no cold disparagement, as has been supposed, implied in the phrase, luculentam at- qm-utilem reipubl.

Sallusthere refei-s to the first speech against Catiline. Sallust does not pretend to give Ci- cero's speeches, because they were published by himself. Jugurtha ut erat impigro atque acri ingenio. This is an unjust sarcasm on Cicero, who was a genuine citizen of Rome ; but the ] roud patrician sneers at the plebeians generally, as an adventitious class. But more particu- larly to traitors against the state, slayers of their country.

Te patria odit ac metuit, ac jam diu te nihil judicat nisi de parricidio suo cogitare. Hostem et parricidam Vitellium vo- cantes.

Just as a conflagration may be extinguished by the falling or pulling down of the house. Cicero, pro Murena, 25, cites the same phrase as used by Catiline: This reply, according to Cicero, was made not to himself, but to Cato, who probably had foUowed him in the debate. Sed Cethego atque Lentulo, ceterisque quorum cognoverat promp- tam audaciam, mandat, quibus rebus possent, opes factionis confirment, insidias consuli maturent, csedem incendia, aliaque belli facinora parent: It was a common heading for proclamations.

Bonum factum ; edicta ut servetis mea. Cicero deHvered the second Catilinarian, postridie quam Catilina profugit, v. For this ad- jectival use of the prep. Trojae prope victor altai Phthius Achilles, "the nearly-con- queror of Troy. Tuus, Eneu, Pene gener, " thy almost-son- in-law. Qui nunquam vero vitse gustavit amo- rem Nec fuit in numero scil.

Nemo ex hoc numero mihi non dona- tus abibit. The same double con- struction with gen. This was called unci- arium fenus, the uncia being jgth of the as. This was reduced to one half by the consuls Manlius and Plautius, A. These enact- ments were generally disregarded: Quinas hic capiti mercedes exsecat.

But the passage in the text refers more particularly to the lex PiEtelia Papiria, a. At aii earlier period the creditor had power not only to confine his debtor, but to sell him into slavery. Gellius under- stood this law literally, and it has generally been interpreted accord- ingly.

Some, however, maintain that the sectio refers only to a division of the debtor's eflfects. Perhaps it was a rude way of expressing the idea of strict retribution, like the provisions of the ]Mahometan law of retaliation, not meant to be actually enforced. The prietor ur- banus was the principal judge in all civil processes, and the poor debtors complained that he favoured their wealthier creditors.

In the edictum which he issued on assuming his office he declared the principles on which he should administer justice, and frequently trenched upon the provisions of actual law. G , thoucrh niany ]MSS. Observe that nostri, vestri are genitives sing. On the other hand, amor nostri, where being or condition, negotii, may be imderstood. So where nos is tlie sub- ject, pars nostrum amat: The silver coin, the sesteriius, was paid with the brass coin, the as. Tliis re- fers to an adjustment of debts made by the government in the year u.

Fabio Maximo dictatore asses unciales facti, placuit- que denarium sedecim assibus permu- tari, sestertium quaternis. On three or more oc- casions the plebs removed in a body from the city. They were prevailed upon to return by con- cessions accorded them by the pairi- cians. Observethe change of construction. Massilia, the modern Marseilles, was founded by the Phocaans Thuc.

The Roman province bein"' governed by proconsuls sent there by the oligarchical party, and all their influence brought to bear upon the allies of the republic, Mas- silia beeame firmly attached to the senate ; and Catiline, in pretending to choose it for his place of exile, inti- mated that he was falsely accused of hostility to the ruling faction.

Exile among the Romans was banishment to a place beyond the direct control of the commonwealth, but any allied city was allowed to receive exiles, however near it might be to Rome. Gradually all the free states were ab- sorbed into the provinces, and there ceased to be any place of asylum for exiles within the frontiers of the em- pire.

An elliptic expression for non eo quod. Egregia tua fides, re cognita, gratam in magnis periculis fiduciam commendationi mese- tribuit.

He was the most illustrioiis of the oligarchical party both in rank and reputation. Catulus vvas of the Lutatian, properly Luctatian, getis. Some suppose there to be a Deus Fidius, from a passage in Plautus, Asin. Cortius ob- serves that status is the position a man holds, gradus that which he seeks, therefore proposes to substitute the latter for the former here; on the supposition that status dignitatis means the consulship which Catiline failed to ohtain.

It refers, however, to the position which Catiline already occupied. Catilina, pecu- niarum repetundarum reus, prohibitus erat consulatum petere. Obtinere ; to hold, keep, preserve. Sumptum, which occurs here in some MSS.

Hoc nomine satis honestas, pro meo casu, spes reliquoe dignitatis con- servandae sum secutus. Plura cum scribere vellem, nunciatum est, vim mihi parari. Sed ipse, paucos dies commoratus apud C. Honestare laude, occurs in Cicero ; honestare gloria in the Ju- gur. Arezzo, lay almost on the direct road froni llome to Fa3sula?. This reading is therefore to be preferred to lieatino, which most editions foUow.

Reate, in the country of the Sabines, was far to the right. This was accordingly an usurp- ation of official rank ; as Plutarch says in his life of Cicero, c. The word meant originally no more than " strangers," comp.

Cicero says of this change of signification, de Off. Hostisenimapud niajoresis dicebatur quem nunc peregrinuni dici- mus. In this place, with one excep- gitimate warfare ; but tlie pirate, non tion, they concur in delectus. But if est ex perduellium numero sed com- there were such a word as dilectus, munis hostis omnium. Doe- est et naturalis ordo, ut viros ac foemi- derlein, Latein. KXaieiv, Uesy- occurssometimes, asin Lucr. Seneca, depends upon liceret, after which un- Epist.

Sallust, troduced for emphasis, clianges the Fr. The force of adeo is terly demoralized, or reckless. Gl item alii per declecora patrimoniis amissis; pos- tremo omnes quos flagitium aut facinus domo ex- pulerat; ii Romam, sicuti in sentinam', confluxerant. Sentina, a sink, cess- pool, hold of a ship.

Cui tolerare colo vitam tenuique Minerva. Thus Crassus, after the defeat of Spar- tacus, when suing for the consulship, A. G83, feasted the Roman people at ten thousand tables. Public largesses had been given occasionally, and C, Gracchus introduced the sale of corn at low fixed prices to the citizens; but M. Cato first advised a regular gratui- tous distribution, in the hope of with- drawing the needy citizens from the influence of the demagogues.

The largess five bushels, Sall. The families of the proscribed were incapacitated for holding public office by a Lex Cor- nelia, a. The rehabilitation of these persons was agitated for many years; defeated by Cicero in his con- sulship; and at last eflfected by Cae- sar as dictator.

Among the principal measures of SuUa for curbing the pretensions of the Marian or popular party at Rome, and securing to the senate the administra- tion of aflfairs, was the restriction he placed upon the prerogative of the tribunes of the plebs. Tribu- norum plebis potestatem minuit et omne jus ferendarum legum ademit. The ancient right of intercessio, or a veto on motions in the senate, still remained to them.

All these prerogatives were restored by a Lex Pompeia, in the year above raentioned. Pompeius tribuniciam po- testatem restituit, cujus Sulla imagi- nem sine re reliquerat. Properly adolescen- tia extended from 15 to 30 years of age. But the term was frequently applied to persons of more advanced age.

In this place liomines adolescentes may be rendered "rising men;" that is, men who were beginning to become im- portant political characters. Hi magistratus, provincias, aliaque omnia tenere: Tlie " maritime war" was that against the Cilician pirates, who infested the whole of the Mediterra- nean, and often made descents on land, even in Italy.

Gabinius, a crea- ture of Pompey, proposed a law for conferring upon him extraordinary coramand for their suppression, a. The speed and efficiency with which Pompey put down these ma- rauders was deservedly celebrated. The "Mithridatic war" was the long contest waged by the republic against Mithridates, the renowned king of Pontus. Sulla had defeated, and was supposed to have crushed him ; but he rose again, and wrested the province of Asiafrom the Ilomans. Lucullus again defeated him, but he was still unconquered ; and at last, at the motion of Manilius, the Roman people appointed Pompey to carry on the war against him, with full powers throughout the eastern possessions of the republic.

This extraordinary com- mission was regarded by the senate with great jealousy. It was appre- hended that Pompey would never consent to return to Rome as a pri- vate man.

Nevertheless, after the suc- cessful completion of his task, and the addition of extensive provinces to the empire, he disbanded his legions, and was content to be the first citizen in the free state.

But he afterwards re- pented, and tried, by a league with Caesar and Crassus, the first triuravi- rate, to acquire a more decided su- premacy in the commonwealth. The Manilian law was carried a. Gens unica terras Incolit a sa;vo serpentum innoxia morsu. Innoxiu3 ab injuria pecorum.

I put [que] iii brackets as suspicious, tliough sup- ported by the MSS. Tliere is great confusion in this passage. Fuere tamen extra conjurationem complures, qui ad Catilinam in- itio profecti sunt: FulviusS senatoris filius; quem, retractum ex itinere, parens necari jussit. Disappoint- ed candidates, especially if they were tribunes, excited the people against their rulers ; but by an unscrupuloua use of ihe judicia, the magistrates, se- cure themselveSjterrified them into mo- deration.

Placidius tractarent, "keep them quiet," as opposed to accenderent or exagitarent. But this sense is ques- tionable. Flacidius tractarent should rather mean, " treat with kindness: Catualda, dubiis rebus ejus, ultionem ausus. So rebus2Jei'ditis, rebus secundis, etc. The reading novandi is supported by some MSS.

The father, by the old Roman law, had power of life and death over his child up to any age. Instances are given of parents calling their rela- tions together and sitting in judgment on their sons for public crimes. But this right had become obsolete, and its exercise would not have been en- dured in this case, but for the preju- dice of the government against Cati- line and his abettors. The Allo- broges, a tribe between the Khone and Isere, had sent envoys to Rome to complain of the exactions of the provincial government, and to sue for a remission of their public debts.

They had been with difficulty con- quered, and had more than once re- volted. Cicero says of them, in CatiL iii. Fabius INIaximus obtained the surname Allobrogicus for his vic- tory over them as far back as a.

The negotiator was generally a money-lender. IUe eos in domum D. Prseterea Gabinium accer- sit, quo major auctoritas sermoni inesset: Sed AUobroges diu in incerto habuere, quidnam consilii caperent. Hsec illis volventibus, tandem vicit fortuna reipublicae. For the construction comp. Ex eo numero compliires Q. Hence we may infer that this Fabius inherited the office of patronus from the con- queror Fabius AUobrogicus. The conjunction is found in all the MSS.

At this time the repub- lic possessed two provinces named Gaul: The hither province was divided into Cis- padane and Transpadane, with refer- ence to the river Po Padus which intersected it. The western peninsu- lar extremity of Italy was called Brut- tium: So, Bruttia saxa, Pers. This emendation for Citeriore is rendered necessary by the statement of Cicero that Murena was in the transalpine province.

Metellus Celer was in the cisalpine or hither province. A lieutenant of the imperator, or governor of a province. Sometimes the governor being himself absent deputed his charge to a legatus. But in this case the legatus was sent by the Senate itself, and no proconsul appointed. Boc- chus cum peditibus It is generally used technically of legal proceedings. It was the policy of the conspirators to pretend that Cicero had got up a false rumour of a plot in order to drive innocent men away from the city.

It seems that ISI. Brutus in writing an account of these transactions used this same ex- pression, optimus consul, with refer- ence to Cicero's part in them.

Cicero in a letter to Atticus, xii. Hic autem se etiam tri- buere multum mihi putat, quod scripserit optimum consulem. Sed ea divisa hoc modo dicebantur: Statilius et Gabinius uti cum magna manu duodecim simul 2 opportuna loca urbis incenderent, quo tumultu facilior aditus ad consulem, ceterosque, quibus insi- dise parabantur, fieret: Cethegus Ciceronis januam obsideret, eum vi adgrederetur, alius autem alium: Inter hsec parata atque decreta, Cethegus semper quereba- tur de ignavia sociorum: But I do not think Sallust meant anything depreciatory.

Opti' mus was itself a hearty and genial word, and occurs in the most compli- mentary descriptions. Optimus hic et forniosissiraus idem gentis patriciae. Cicero himself uses it of Pansa ; consul fortissimus atque optimus. The tribunes were to enter upon their office the lOth of that month.

But Cicero's vigilance anticipated this design. He got the conspirators exe- cuted December 5. Plutarch doubt- less exaggerates when he says that the conspirators assigned a hundred dif- ferent places to be fired at the same time. Catilina's ad- herents were mostly young men. Cicero calls them, libidinosa et deli- cata juventus jad Att. Of the proscriptions of the second triumvirate Velleius remarks: Id tamen notandum, fuisse in proscriptos uxorum fidem Buramam, libertorum mediam, servo- rum aliquam, filiorum nullam.

Natura ferox, vehemens, manu promptus erat; maximum bonum in celeritate pu- tabat. Ceteri nihil suspicantes dant: Cassius semet eo brevi venturum poUicetur, ac paullo ante legatos ex urbe proficiscitur.

Lentulus cum his T. Volturcium quem- dam, Crotoniensem 6, mittit, uti AUobroges prius, quam domum pergerent, cum Catilina, data et ac- cepta fide, societatem confirmarent. Ipse Volturcio litteras ad Catilinam dat, quarum exemplum infra scriptum est: Prolatare, an intensive form, from proferre, prolatum. Quis sim, means, " who I am ;" qui sim, "what sort of person I am. His rebus ita actis, constituta nocte, qua proficiscerentur, Cicero, per legatos cuncta edoctus, L.

This was a covert suggestion to arm slaves, whieh was too atrocious a design to be com- mitted to writing, though recommend- ed, as we see immediately afterwards, orally. Probably neither author cared to quote with perfect accuracy.

No reliance whatever can be placed on Sallust saying just above, quarum ex- emplum infra scriptum. The same whom Cicero defended upon a charge of malversation in the province of Asia. Pomptinius ; or Pomtinus. His family were probably of Suessa Pometia, in Latium, whence the paludes PomptintE derived their name. This Pomptinius succeeded Murena in Transalpine Gaul, and eflfected the final pacification of the Allobroges, over whom he triumphed, a. The Mulvian, or Milvian bridge perhaps, from M. The great battle between Constantine and Maxentius a.

It is now called Ponte Molle: A bridge would be a con- venient spot for interceptingtravellers. At such a point it was more diffieult to escape. Being narrow, and gene- rally with a considerable elevation, carriages would slacken their pace at them. Beggars and loiterers infested them, and waylayers might keep a look out from them without exciting suspicion.

At illum ingens cura atque Isetitia simul occupavere. Nam laetabatur, intelligens, conjuratione patefacta, civitatem periculis ereptam esse: Ci- cero's description in Catil.

Ceteri sine mora veniunt: Coeparius, paullo ante domo egressus, cognito indicio, ex urbe profugerat. Flaccum prsetorem scri- nium cum litteris, quas a legatis acceperat, eodem adferre jubet. Volturcius interrogatus " de itinere, de litteris, postremo quid, aut qua de caussa, consilii habuisset? The foun- dations of this temple are still visible at the foot of the Capitoline hill, facing the forum.

It was built by Camillus, and commemorated the restoration of concord between the senate and peo- ple. Four hundred and fifteen members divided at a full meeting. Allowance must be made for the number of se- nators engaged in the provincial ad- ministration. The meetings were held in the cella, or interior chamber of the temple comp. Autronium, Servium Sul- lam, L. Vargunteium, multos praeterea in ea conju- ratione esse.

He had only heard the names of a few indi- viduals among them. Kritz explains it, se praeterquam quod legatos sciat conjurationis participes esse nuUam plane ex conjuratis nosse: Certain volumes so called, containing predic- tions regarding the destinies of the republic, were kept in custody of spe- cial officers called Quindecimvirs, and formed an important engine of state.

Many other vaticinations, pretending to the authority of the Sibyls, were current among the citizens, and it is to some of these probably that Len- tulus referred. The emperor Augus- tus found these inipostures such a nuisance to the government that he caused a pretended authentic compila- tion to be made, and gave all the rest he could coUect to the flames.

Cornelius Cinna, a leader of the popular party during the absence of Sulla in the east a. He was consul a. Being driven out of Rome by his colleague Octavius, he retumed with a military force, took the city, and exacted a proscription of the aristocratic party. Hewaseven- tually killed in a mutiny of his own soldiers whom he was leading against Sulla. It wasagain burnt in the con- test of the Vitellian and Flavian sol- diers. Lac- tantius says that, up to his time, in the fourth century, it had been fre- quently destroyed by lightning.

Statilius cognovit signum et manum suam. Gallio retrahitur in urbem custoditurque domibus magis- tratuum. Spinther means, a bracelet. Lentulus is said to have derived his surname from his similarity to a certain actor of the day so called.

A colleague of Cicero'8 in the augurship. Licinius Crassus the triumvir. The second is a stronger word than the first. Post eum diem, quidam L. Tarquinius ad senatum adductus erat, quem ad Catilinam proficiscentem ex itinere retractum aiebant. Is cum se diceret indicaturum de conjuratione, si fides publica data esset ; jussus a consule, quse sciret, edicere, eadem fere, quae Voltur- cius, de paratis incendiis, de caede bonorum, de iti- nere hostium, senatum edocet: Itaque, consulente Cicerone, frequens dicitur ; quum autem inaniter et efFuse animus exsultat, tum illa laetitia ges- tiens vel nimia dici potest.

The lower or- ders contemplated the plunder of the city with little alarm, inasmuch as they had no possessions but what they carried in their hands or wore on their backs: Sed iisdem temporibus Q. Calpurnius Piso, consul G87, proconsul of the further Gaul ; defended by Cicero when accused of extortion in his province. He is to be distinguished from L. Cal- purnius Piso Ca? C9G, and father-in-law of Caesar, a great enemy of Cicero.

Pupius Piso, and Cn. Calpurnius Piso, contemporary nobles. See above, note on ch. It is probable that both were equally aware of the machinations in progress, and disposed to regard with satisfaction a movement which would harass, if not overthrow, the government of the oligarchy. But it is not likely that eitherof them was directly implicated.

Caesar was named as an accomplice the foUowing year by L. Vettius, a man of bad character, whose accusa- tion would have been treated with contempt, but that, being thrown into prison on another account about the same time, he was found dead in his bed, which gave occasion to odious suspicions.

An inhabitant of the part of the Cisalpine province be- yond the Po. Caesar was patron of this people, and as such had impeached Piso.

Ca- tulus had ofFered himself as a can- didate for the high-priesthood in the year , but was opposed, much to his mortification, by Caesar, then comparatively young and little known. The people, who had the appointment, elected their favourite. Caesar atthis time was Caesar beneficiis atque mu- nificentia magnus habebatur But money was at all times freely lent him by the wealthy men of his party, who expected to be amply repaid on his advancement to the highest offices.

Caesar en- gaged Cicero to come forward and declare that he had been actually the first to revealthe existence of the plot to him; and the senate decreed that the reward assigned to Curius should be taken from him, and handed over to the prior informant. This refers to the clause following: For ihe circumstance comp. He wonders, however, if this were true, why Cicero did not mention it in the history of his consulship. This outrage, however, caused great indignation among the people, who on a subsequent occasion, when Caesar defended himself in the senate, and was ill received there, sur- rounded the curia with loud outcries, and insisted on his being dismissed ia safety.

Upon the occasion of Cicero's second Catili- narian oration Nov. The other conspirators, on being con- victed of correspondence with them, fell under the same sentence. He succeed- ed to the consulship in the following year, with Murena. He was married to Cato's half sister, Servilia. The consul designatus, elected but not yet entered upon his office, was usually asked his opinion first by the actual consul.

Tibe- rius exemit Drusum, consulem desig- natum, dicendae primo loco sententiee. He had proposed tliat the question of punish- ment should stand over for the pre- sent, probably till the issue of the con- test with Catilina; the culprits being kept in custody during the interval: There was much irregularity in the ordcr in wliich opinions were demanded in the senate.

At the conclusion of the de- bate, the groups thus assembled were counted. The consul usually called first upon one of the consuls-desig- nate, next upon the consulars, the praetors, and other high magistrates. But he was not bound to any particu- lar order ; and in the present case we find Catulus, a consuhir, speaking af- ter Ca'sar, who was pra.

But whatever order the consul as- signed at the commencement of his term of office, he was expected to maintain throughout. Caesar's vio- lating this usage, in his own consul- ship, was remarked upon. On this occasion it seems that Crassus was not present, otherwise Sallust, or Cicero himself, would undoubtedly have recorded liis opinion. He was indignant, perhaps, at the suspicion of complicity cast upon him. Many of the senators ab- stained from attending, from various motives. Magna mihi copia est memo- randi, Patres conscripti, qui reges atque populi, ira aut misericordia impulsi, male consuluerint: Perses, or Perseus, the last of tlie liings of Mace- donia, was subdued by L.

The state of Rhodes became famous as the greatest maritime power of the eastern Medi- terranean, after the fall of Athens in the fourth century b. It had proved itself a faithful ally of the Ro- mans in the war with Antiochu? In the Macedonian war it in- clined to the other side, or, at least, trimmed between the two. The Romans did not turn their arms upon theni, and over- throw their commonwealth: No Iloman citizen could, in strict lavv, be con- demned to death, except by a vote of the people.

On the other hand, the senate by the a pointment of a dicta- tor, or by investing the consuls with SUtnniary powers, by a senatus-con- sultum ultinium, i. The j eopIe alvvays regarded these strctches of prerogative as illegal en- croathments, and in the sequel de- clared, at the instigation of the tri- bune Clodius, that Cicero had com- mitted a judicial murder in executing the conspirators by virtue of a decree of the senate.

Composito rumpit vocem et me destinat arae. Qui demissi in obscuro vitam hcabent, si quid iracundia deliquere, pauci sciunt ; fama atque fortuna eorum pares sunt: Ita in maxima fortuna minima licentia est: Equidem ego sic jcstimo, Pcatres con- scripti, omnes cruciatus minores, qucam facinora illo- rum, esse: Verum sententia non mihi crudelis, quid enim in tales homines crudele fieri potest?

De timore supervaccaneum est disserere, cum, praescrtim diligen- tia clarissimi viri, consulis, tanta praesidia sint in ar- mis. Hence the phrases suppHcium for "capital pu- nishment," tn hostium numero haberCf for " to put to the sword. Sciendum tamen quod quidam equidem conjunc- tionem compositam esse existiniant ab ego et quidem; sed errant. Et hoc maxime ex ipsa constructione orationis possumus in- telligere. Nam equidcm facio, equi- dem facis, equidemfacit dicimus.

He goes on to prove the same from the combination of ego a. Bentley maintained, however, that the use of equidem was confined at least to the first person singular down to the time of Nero: Equidem then is best explained as a stronger form of quidem, the e being an intensive particle, as in edurus, egelidus, or enim, ecastor.

Donald- son's Varronianus, p. See Bentley on Ter. Ac- cordingly read in Pers. Haud equ'em immerito Cautum; Virg. An, quia gra- GeoT. Ilaud equ'em, credo, quia sit divinitus illis. But it is not likely that this vulgar contraction would be admitted in heroic poetry; and it is better to consider the e short, as in etiim.

The various constructions in which equidem occurs may be seen in the following. A remarkable avowal of materialism in the Chief Pontiflf of the national religion. Cicero himself only ventures, iu opposition to this opinion, to allude to the belief of the ancients as a conve- nient check to crime: The Porcian law, proposed by P. Porcius Laeca, a tri- bune of the plebs, a. Porcia lex sola pro tergo civium lata videtur, quod gravi poena, si quis verberasset necassetve civem Roma- num, sanxit.

A citizen brought on a capital charge before the people might decline a trial by withdrawing into banishment. The lex Sempronia of C. Gracchus also forbade the ma- gistrate pronouncing a capital sen- tence aga nst a citizen without first obtaining the sanction of the people.

Ilhs merito accidit, quidquid evenerit: Omnia mala exempla ex bonis orta sunt ; sed, ubi imperium ad ignaros, aut minus bonos pervenit, novum ilhid exemphim ab dignis et idoneis ad indignos et non idoneos transfertur.

Hi primo coepere pessimum quemque et omnibus invisum in- demnatum necare: Post, ubi pauUatim Hcentia crevit, juxta bonos et malos lubidinose interficere, ceteros metu terrere. Ita civitas, servitute oppressa, stultae laetitise graves poenas dedit. Qui the old ab- lat. A formula for meeting a supposed objection. In aliisy the reading of one MS. Commonly call- ed the thirty tyrants ; an oligarchical administration imposed upon Athens by the Spartans at the end of the Pe- loponnesian war.

Laetari with the accus. Sed ea res magme initium cladis fuit. Nam, uti quisque domum, aut villam, postremo aut vas, aut vestimentum alicujus concupiverat, dabat operam, uti in proscriptorum numero esset. Tullio, neque his temporibus, vereor: G72, after he had murdered many distinguislied senators. A warlike peo- ple inhabiting the mountainous coun- try in the centre of southern Italy. This, however, is not strictly the case. Such, perhaps, as the trabea, or wliite robe tremo, quod ubique apud socios aut hostes idoncum videbatur, cum summo studio domi exsequebantur: Hanc ego caussam, Patres conscripti, quo minus novum consilium capia- mus, in primis magnam puto.

Profecto virtus atquc sapientia major in illis fuit, qui ex parvis opibus tantum imperium fecere, quam in nobis, qui ea bene parta vix retinemus. The da- tive of the thing, instead of the person, which is more usual with invidere.

The Komans were proud of the mildness of tlieir laws in regard to their own citizens, whicli they considered the mark of a free and liberal constitution.

At Athens, citizens were liable to capital punishment, which was frequently inflicted on slight grounds, tliough the mode of death, by administering a draught of hemlock, was studiously mild.

Leges is omitted by some MSS. Illi mihi disseruisse videntur de poena eorum, qui patriie, paren- in Catil. It appears that the Ivoman government allowed so much independence to the municipal ad- ministrations, that they might liave refused to undertake the confine- ment of these prisoners. Habere videtur ista res iniquitatera, si im- perare velis ; difficultatem, si ro- gas.

The Porcian was a plebeian gens, but of ancient no- bility. Cato the censor was great grandfather of the Cato here men- tioned, who is distinguished from him by the surname of Uiicemis, from the place of his death.

He was born, a. Accordingly, he was at this time 32 years of age. He had not yet served any high office, and was only beginning to become known in tlie political world.

The uncompro- mising opinions he expressed on this occasion marked him out as a leader for the nobles, Avho were dissatis- fied with Pompeius and Crassus, and disdained Cicero for his obscure ori- gin. Cicero cha- racterizes Cato's speech on this occa- sion in his pleading for Sestius, c.

The beginning of this speech may be com- pared with that of the third Olynthiac of Demosthenes. Nam cetcra maleficia tum pcrsequare, ubi facta sunt ; hoc, nisi providcris ne accidat, ubi evcnit, frustra judicia implores ; capta urbc, nihil fit rcHqui victis.

Sed, pcr dcos immortales! Non agi- tur de vcctigakbus, nequc de sociorum injuriis: The best opi- nion seems to be that both these words refer to the citizens' private dwellings; the ara being the altar of the Penatcs, in the central court of the house im- phivium , the focus the hearth in the hall atrium around which the little images of the Lares wereranged. In dubio vitje nostra Corinna jacet. Bene O' to forgive, i. Hic mihi Fufius pacis commoda commemorat. Some editions make the sentence in- terrogative.

This reading, supported by se- veral MSS. Quasi vero mali atque scclesti tantummodo in urbe, et non per totam Italiam sint ; aut non ibi plus possit audacia, ubi ad defcndendum opes minores sunt.

Quare vanum equidem hoc consilium est, si periculum ex illis me- tuit: Quare, cum dc F. Lentulo ccterisque statuetis, pro certo habe- tote, vos simul de exercitu Catilina3 et de omnibus conjuratis dccernere. Quanto vos attentius ea agetis, tanto ilHs animus infirmior erit: This is the order of all the MSS. Proxima deinde tenent mocsti loca. Si ita res esset, multo pulcherrimam eam nos haberemus: Neque mi- rum ; ubi vos separatim sibi quisque consilium capitis, ubi domi vokiptatibus, hic pecunijc, aut gratice servi- tis: Conjuravere nobilissimi cives patriam incendere: Gallorum gentem infestissimam nomini llomano ad bellum accersunt: Numidae infensi ad- esse atque instare.

Han- nibali diversis locis opportuni aderant, carpentes agmen. Nat'-, ista vobis mansuetudo et misericordia, si illi arma ceperint, in miseriam vertet. Immo vero maxime ; sed inertia et mollitia animi, alius alium exspectantes, eunctamini, dis immortalibus eonfisi, qui hanc rem- publicam in maximis sa pe periculis servavere.

Non votis, neque suppliciis muliebribus auxilia deorum pa- rantur: Apud majores nostros, T. Videlicet vita cetera eorum huic sce- leri obstat. Yerum parcite dignitati Lentuli, si ipse tantis civibus deprehensis. For the story of Manlius, who, as imperator, caused his son to be put to death by military execution for engaging in combat contrary to orders, sce Liv.

Salhisfs error arose probably from his confounding thls occasion with that on which Manlius won the collar tor- quis from the Gaulish champion. Nam quid ego de Ga- binio, StatiHo, Cocpario loquar? Quibus si quidquam umquam pensi fuisset-, non ea consiHa de repubhca habuissent.

Quare ita ego censeo: When it was proposed, in the reign of Nero, that Antistius should be executed more majorum, it was ursjed that the sentence should LIII. Sciebam saepe- numero parva manu cum magnis legionibus hostium contendisse: Ac mihi multa agi- be commuted to banishment: Adsido, accurrunt servi, soccos de- tralmnt.

The de- cree is said to have been made in ac- cordance with Cato's opinion, not as if he had been the only speaker on that side, but because his speech was the most effective, and had evidently carned the point.

See Cicero to At- ticus, xii. Cicero's policy, whereas M. Brutus, in writing a panegyric on his uncle Cato, had made it appear as if the capital punishment had been Cato's original suggestion. Much weight cannot be given to Brutus's authority on this point, but it is in some degree corroborated by the silence of Sallust, regarding the part which Cicero claimed in the business.

Len- tulus ante alics tetate et gloria belli. Sed, memoria mea, ingenti virtute, diver- sis moribus fuere viri duo, M. IUe mansue- tudine et misericordia clarus factus: JEtate is introduced on the conjecture of Dietsch: The readings of the MSS. Catowas of a plebeian, Caesar of a patrician family, both however ennobled by public honours. Cato was thirty-three, Ca3sar thirty-eight years of age.

Pompey had monopo- lized the conduct of the last great war in the East. Refert sis bonus an velis videri. For Cato's cha- racter, see particularly the fine pane- gyric in Lucan, ii. Hence triumvirale supplicium, Tac. Ita ille patricius, ex clarissima gente Corneliorum, qui consulare im- perium llomse habuerat, dignum moribus factisque suis exitum vitae invenit. De Cethego, Statilio, Gabinio, Coepario, eodem modo supplicium sumptum.

Tlie Carcer, a public prison, under the east- ern side of the Capitoline hill, -vvas built by Ancus, and enlarged by Ser- vius Tullius. This place now exists, and is used as a chapel to a church built over it, in honour of the supposed imprisonment there of St Peter. Formerly crimi- nals were let down into it by a hole in the chamber above. But the phrase ubi ascenderis, seems to imply some common passengers' route, and refers, probably, to the ascent of the street in which the carcer stood, from the for m, which agrees with the existing localities.

Not the triumvirs themselves, but the carnijices, com- mon executioners, under their or- ders. Sed ex omni copia circiter pars quarta erat militaribus armis instructa ; ceteri, ut quemque casus armaverat, sparos aut lanceas, alii prseacutas sudes, portabant. Sed, postquam in castra nuncius pervenit, Romae conjurationem patefactam, de Lentulo, Ce- thego, ceteris, quos supra memoravi, supplicium sump- tum: This is not super- fluous, though expleverat follows, in- asmuch as the writer wishes to mark that the number was complete, but they were incompletely armed.

For thig construction compare Caesar, Bell. Itaque, con- cione advocata, hujuscemodi orationem habuit: Catiline had fixed his quartersatFffisulse. The direct road to the Cisalpine province lay to the north, through Bononia, but Celer occupied this. Besides, Catiline wanted to get to the AUobroges in the Transalpine. Sed ego vos, quo pauca monerem, advocavi; simul uti caussam consilii aperirem. Scitis equidem, milites, secordia atque ignavia Lentuli quantam ipsi cladem nobisque attulerit ; quoque modo, dum ex urbe prsesidia oppe- rior, in Galliam proficisci nequiverim.

Nunc vero quo in loco res nostrse sint, juxta mecum omnes intel- ligitis. Quocumque ire placet, ferro iter aperien- dum est. Quapropter vos moneo, uti forti atque parato animo sitis; et, cum praelium inibitis, memine- ritis, vos divitias, decus, gloriam, prseterea Hbertatem atque patriam, in dextris portare. Prseterea, milites, non eadem nobis et illis necessitudo impendet: Romanos laxius licentiusque futuros.

So the adverbs impune, adversus, are joined with the verb subst. Quo audacius adgredimini, memores pristinse virtutis. Licuit nobis, cum summa turpitudine, in exilio oetatem agere: Quia illa fccda atque intoleranda viris videbantur, hsec sequi decrevistis. Si hgec relin- quere vultis, audacia opus est: Nam in fuga salutem sperare, cum arma, quibus corpus tegitur, ab hostibus averte- ris, ea vero dementia est.

Semper in pruelio maximum est periculum, qui maxime timent: Cum vos considero, milites, et cum facta vestra sestimo, magna me spes victorise tenet. Quod si virtuti vestrse fortuna inviderit, cavete, inulti animam amittatis; neu capti potius, sicuti pecora, trucidemini, quam, virorum more pug- nantes, cruentam atque luctuosam victoriam hostibus relinquatis.

Marius jubet tubicines siniul omnes signa canere. But this subject and object are rarely expressed together. Marius in exercitu habu- isse dicebatur. At ex altera parte C. Antonius, pedi- cornicines occinuerunt. But it is more common to meet with the phrase in the text. Caesar primum suo deinde omnium e conspectu remotis equis, ut a? Plutarch gives him the name of Furius. Tacitus sometimes adds the object.

Antonius is sur- mised to have feigned sickness, to escape the necessity of fighting with Catiline, in whose designs he may have been partly implicated. The same who was joined in command with Afranius, as a legatus of Pompey in Spain, and was there defeated by Caesar, a.

He caused himself to be killed in single combat with Juba, king of Nu- midia, after the disastrous battle of Thapsus. TumuliuSf a sudden occasion of peril from a fo- reign foe, when the ordinary rules of service are suspended, and the citizens generally liable to be called out for the defence of the state.

There were six of these to each legion. In early times they commanded the legion successively day by day, and even at this period a tribune might still be ealled by courtesy, the commander of a legion. Horace, at the age of 22, joined the army of M. Brutus in Greece, and was appointed a tribunus.

He savs of himself: Quod mihi pare- ret legio Romana tribuno. It is im- possible that so young and obscure a man could have been actual com- mander of a legion. The commander of the auxiliary horse, appointed by the imperator from among his Roman officers.

The consurs or im- perator's lieutenant, generally in com- mand of a detachment. Sed ubi, omnibus rebus cxploratis, Petreius tuba signum dat, cohortes paullatim incedere jubet ; idem facit hostium exercitus.

Interea Cati- lina cum expcditis in prima acie versari, laborantibus succurrerc, integros pro sauciis accersere, omnia pro- videre, multum ipse pugnare, sffipe hostem ferire ; strenui militis, et boni imperatoris officia simul exse- quebatur.

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